New report explores how much it costs to own a dog in New York City

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A new study sought to find out how much it costs to own man’s best friend in New York City.

The study, released by Vet Naturals, revealed that where you live in the United States can impact the initial costs of adopting, fostering or buying a dog, as well as taking the first year’s worth of expenses, such as vet visits and food, into account. New York City was found to be the fifth-most expensive city to adopt a dog, costing $3,823.05 the first year of ownership.

According to the report, the average adoption fee for dog adoption in New York City is $341.67, with the first vet bill averaging $543.40. The report also factors in the annual cost of food ($228), the annual licensing fee ($8.50), the cost of startup supplies ($350), the average cost of treats and toys annually ($217), as well as the annual cost of a dog walker, which takes up a lot of the cost at $2,112.

The report found that if a New Yorker were to buy a dog from a breeder rather than adopt, the cost shoots up to $5,592 the first year. In New York City, the average purchase price for a dog is around $2,041. The report also found that the licensing fee rises to $9 and the first vet bill is around $591.

The most cost-efficient way for New Yorkers to afford a dog would be through fostering, which the report found costs a New Yorker $2,351 annually.

Read the full study at vetnaturals.com.

This story originally appeared on amny.com